FPV HUB
Advanced search  

News:

Who's Online
  • Dot Guests: 154
  • Dot Hidden: 0
  • Dot Users: 0

There aren't any users online.
* Site Sponsor
* Random Gallery Items
F450 with FPV2

Views: 816
Posted by: ROVguy
in: ROVguys Album
DSCF6008

Views: 2366
Posted by: [email protected]
in: Stuff
7dbiomni

Views: 4235
Posted by: Coyote
in: Coyote`s Album
Scout Bee

Views: 3368
Posted by: MarkLincs
in: Scout Bee
* Latest Gallery Items
My Twin Dream

Views: 1224
Posted by: Coyote
in: Coyote`s Album
Vortex 285

Views: 1181
Posted by: Coyote
in: Coyote`s Album
Mini Talon Rebuild

Views: 1254
Posted by: Coyote
in: Coyote`s Album
Mini 3D Gimbal on MTD

Views: 1231
Posted by: Coyote
in: Coyote`s Album
Matek 405-Wing

Views: 1239
Posted by: Coyote
in: Coyote`s Album
Pages: [1] 2

Author Topic: THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?  (Read 1014 times)

electrotor

  • Moderator
  • Air Vice-Marshal
  • *
  • Karma: 80
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 3533
THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
« on: January 02, 2021, 12:06:15 PM »

A handy check sheet for those people wondering what the differences are now that we have gone beyond 30 Dec. 2020.
In effect very little or none in some cases if you are only flying at a club site.

For me, two of the multicopters I have flown at a club site & other places will now require my operators number. Reason? Although they are under 250g, they are fitted with cameras.


publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP2008_EU_Drone_Rules_Factsheet_V7%206.pdf?fbclid=IwAR37dicNmg2tQMew6rtK7fFhDeE90nTgjpTBWXVIQ-L28olOqatPbdLyNBg
Logged
Natibus in luto, caput inter nubila.

ORCA

  • Flight Lieutenant
  • *
  • Karma: 3
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 160
Re: THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
« Reply #1 on: January 04, 2021, 06:22:10 PM »

I thought this had been clarified in a previous post on another thread. As long as the camera and/or the goggles do not record the video then there is no need to register as an operator for sub 250g with a camera.
Post 9 of this thread   https://www.fpvhub.com/index.php/topic,54258.msg283674/topicseen.html#new
Logged
Age and Treachery Will Always Overcome Youth and Enthusiasm

electrotor

  • Moderator
  • Air Vice-Marshal
  • *
  • Karma: 80
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 3533
Re: THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
« Reply #2 on: January 07, 2021, 12:11:52 AM »

Sometimes I use the cameras to capture images.
Logged
Natibus in luto, caput inter nubila.

mike407

  • Pilot Officer
  • *
  • Karma: 0
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 7
Re: THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
« Reply #3 on: January 13, 2021, 08:02:39 PM »

CAP2012 seems to confirm - Register if it has a camera.  CAP 722 Section 1.3 seems to refer to Data Protection and the need to register.

http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP2012_EU_Drone_Rules_Factsheet_V7%207.pdf

Article 16 Section 3.9 - Flying height.
3.9 (1) The operation of model aircraft within this authorisation is limited to a height
of 120m (400ft), unless the conditions below are met.
Page 4
20201215 UK Model Flying Associations UAS 7068 Article 16 Authorisation
Operating
heights/altitudes/levels
(2) A model aircraft is permitted to fly at a height in excess of 120m (400ft) above the surface, in accordance with the limitations of this authorisation, if all the conditions in sub paragraphs a) to e) below are met.
a) The model aircraft is not a rotorcraft with more than one lift generating rotor or propeller;
b) The model aircraft is not an automated model aircraft as defined in section 7.1;

2b - Is confusing me - If its an automated model then its not covered by article 16 - so why is it mentioned?

2a - I'm building a VTOL mini Talon ( other models available).
     If I hand launch then can I fly upto 1000ft , but if I vertical launch am I restricted to 400ft or is the limit the capability of vertical flight mode)
     Does it matter how I launch but can hover at 399ft ( no GPS to confirm height any way as that gives automatic flight capability), but only allow winged flight above 400ft?



Article 16 - Appendix 7 - Section 2

2) Automated model aircraft:
A model aircraft with autonomous or automatic flight capability. This does not
include systems which are fitted for flight stabilisation purposes or flight
termination purposes, such as free-flight termination devices.

Does this mean any model fitted with a flight controller and a GPS as it will have automatic flight capability?

My old Parrot Drone is capable of autonomous flight I'm I allowed to use it.

 Article 16 - Appendix 7 - Section 8

8) Model aircraft:

Any unmanned aircraft being flown purely for the recreational sport of model
aircraft flying. This includes shop bought or home built aircraft, which are flown
‘manually’ using traditional control inputs rather than with any automation other
than for flight stabilisation purposes. A model aircraft may be flown under the
auspices of an association, or individually.
Note 1: This includes multi rotor aircraft which are being flown with ‘direct’
control inputs, and without any automation, other than for flight stabilization
purposes.

So no automatic RTH ?  Heading Hold? Altitude hold?


Sorry first post with not good news. Hope I'm wrong, as just building ardupilot ground station, and looking a pile of Flight Controllers and GPS that cannot be used in my Model Aircraft.

Do I have to take the GPS out of my ZOHD 250g to comply with these rules.
  Is the ZOHD Kopilot legally allowed to be fitted in a model with its RTH capability.

Again sorry first post and doom and glum -

Any one no if A2 CofC will over come any of this?

Then need to look at the rules of the club I belong to as its a "model flying" club and the definition has now been changed/defined.

One last thought - Insurance.

Not looked at wording but is a legacy model with automatic flight capability covered or only Model Aircraft as defined by this Article. ( any one know of any other cost effective 3rd party insurance that would cover automatic flight capability)

Again sorry to be a pain/ doom merchant.

Mike


Logged

FPVSteve

  • "The Gaffer Tape King"
  • Administrator
  • Marshal of the Royal Air Force
  • *
  • Karma: 276
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 12119
Re: THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
« Reply #4 on: January 13, 2021, 11:20:43 PM »

Let's be honest - it's as clear as mud isn't it. Totally unhelpful and doing nothing to promote safety - don't know about you but I start to glaze over.
Logged

mike407

  • Pilot Officer
  • *
  • Karma: 0
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 7
Re: THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
« Reply #5 on: January 13, 2021, 11:54:18 PM »

Yeap

I was hoping that some one on here might have answers, as I only have one FC that is not capable of automatic flight control as I understand the rules.

Emailed BMFA for clarification on these points, including a question on how their insurance defines a model aircraft.
If the Article 16 definition becomes the insurances legal definition, then I don't have many models I can legally fly.

Also asked how we log a flight - Which authorization are we flying under.
  sub 250g no camera - Art 16 - No ID. - Limited incident reporting
  Add camera then Open Category with ID attached - more extensive incident reporting.


Are we insured if we fly under Open Category?

Will Betaflight and iNAV create a version that just does stabilization, hence remove all the automatic flight options.
 
If I get a response will update.
Logged

mike407

  • Pilot Officer
  • *
  • Karma: 0
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 7
Re: THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
« Reply #6 on: January 13, 2021, 11:58:51 PM »

OK This might help but not under article 16

CAP 722 Page 202 Para 17 D1.2.2

Para 17 – DEFINITION OF ‘AUTONOMOUS OPERATION’
Flight phases during which the remote pilot has no ability to intervene in the
course of the aircraft, either following the implementation of emergency
procedures, or due to a loss of the command-and-control connection, are not
considered autonomous operations.
An autonomous operation should not be confused with an automatic operation,
which refers to an operation following pre-programmed instructions that the UAS
executes while the remote pilot is able to intervene at any time.

So flying under CAP rather than Art 16 might work.

Now do I get A2 CofC'd and will my club allow me to fly under Cap 722 Open or just Art 16?

Q. What are the benefits of flying under Art 16 for the average sub 4KG pilot?

Logged

ORCA

  • Flight Lieutenant
  • *
  • Karma: 3
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 160
Re: THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
« Reply #7 on: January 14, 2021, 03:35:48 PM »

Can I refer you to the second post of this thread where I linked to another thread. In this thread Simon Dale explained - camera with no recording and goggles with no recording = no registration if under 250g.
Link to thread   Post 9 of this thread   https://www.fpvhub.com/index.php/topic,54258.msg283674/topicseen.html#new
Logged
Age and Treachery Will Always Overcome Youth and Enthusiasm

mike407

  • Pilot Officer
  • *
  • Karma: 0
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 7
Re: THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
« Reply #8 on: January 14, 2021, 06:51:09 PM »

Hi
I’m just trying to understand the new rules and work out what to fly under what authorisation.

Read the link.
The key sentence is
However , this is a decision for the operator to make, if sensor is able to capture personal information to register.

However now found Article 14

5.
UAS operators shall register themselves:

(a)
when operating within the ‘open’ category any of the following unmanned aircraft:

i.with a MTOM of 250 g or more, or, which in the case of an impact can transfer to a human kinetic energy above 80 Joules;
ii.that is equipped with a sensor able to capture personal data, unless it complies with Directive 2009/48/EC.(Toys)
(b)
when operating within the ‘specific’ category an unmanned aircraft of any mass.


So looking good

Except

1.  CAP2012 seems to make it clear - if it’s not a toy ( suitable for a 4 year old) and it has a camera then it needs to be registered.
The declaration of being a toy needs to be on the box and the instructions.

249g toy no, 30g quad yes.

2.  Article 16
From BFMA web site
Model aircraft below 250g which are operated in accordance with our Authorisation are subject to the terms and conditions of the Authorisation.  However, in most circumstances they may also be operated within the Open Category instead and so be flown in accordance with the basic requirements outlined in CAP 722 for an aircraft of less than 250g without a camera (i.e. no registration, competency or age requirements but operation limited to less than 400ft).


So I infer that if flying a sub 250g with a camera under Art 16 it need operator ID.

If flying under CAP 722 according to CAP2012 if it has a camera then needs to have a Operator ID.

Using just CAP 722 then looks like a camera for flight control only may not need registering, see below.


3. CAP 722 according to CAP 2012 - Max Speed

Also if being flown in A1 and privately built and sub 250 then max speed is 42 MPH.

If faster than 42 mph then has to be flown in A3 and registered.

Summary ( my best guess)

Art 16
Sub 250 no camera then not registered
Sub 250 no camera fly anywhere
Separation / height depending on weight
Anything else is registered
No automated capability

CAP 722 - CAP2012

In the open category there are only two options for a privately built UAV
A1 sub 250g less than 42 mph
        No camera not registered
        Camera but not toy registered

A3 sub 25kg
        Registered

But can do autonomous  flight if pilot is able to take back control.

What have I got wrong?

Logged

BigT

  • Nothing works !!
  • Air Commodore
  • *
  • Karma: 23
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 2894
  • I'm not deaf just thinking
Re: THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
« Reply #9 on: January 17, 2021, 12:30:36 PM »

If you operate a UAS under Art16 with the BMFA you are legally obliged to report ANY of these witnessed  incidents to the CAA

A UAS flown out of LOS

A UAS incident with passenger carrying aircraft.

A UAS multirotor or other UAS over 7KG flown above 400ft

A FPV UAS a with a take of weight greater than 3.5kg flown without buddy lead or dual control

Any other infringement of CAP 722 and the ANO.

There has also been an adjustment to the terms of the BMFA insurance. To remain insured the member must operate legally.  So failure to report would invalidate the insurance. Ideal opportunity for some back stabbing do gooder that holds a grudge.

Plus we also have future compulsory electronic Conspicuity written into the law as well
Logged
Favorite TV Series:The Sopranos
Favorite WW2 Movie's: Kelly's Heroes, Battle of Britain, Band of Bro

FPVSteve

  • "The Gaffer Tape King"
  • Administrator
  • Marshal of the Royal Air Force
  • *
  • Karma: 276
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 12119
Re: THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
« Reply #10 on: January 17, 2021, 08:15:03 PM »

You'd still need proof of the offense... and on the subject of the weight issue, I personally wouldn't let anyone touch my gear to weigh it unless they had a warrant. You do not have to give consent to anyone other than a police officer and only IF they think a crime has been committed.
Logged

ched

  • Wing Commander
  • *
  • Karma: 6
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 526
Re: THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
« Reply #11 on: January 17, 2021, 08:53:05 PM »

If this stuff is even difficult for us to work out imagine how difficult it will be for a copper? They have no idea on technical terms let alone CAP 722, CAP2012, BMFA etc....

My guess is that if you are flying sensible and an officer approaches be very polite and helpful. 

BigT

  • Nothing works !!
  • Air Commodore
  • *
  • Karma: 23
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 2894
  • I'm not deaf just thinking
Re: THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
« Reply #12 on: January 18, 2021, 10:33:14 AM »

With respect that’s not the point I was trying to illustrate. Bluntly, if you want to operate under Article 16 and not CAP722, it is a legal requirement to report the infringements to the CAA. It would then be down to the investigators to establish proof etc. Failure to report is the offence.
Logged
Favorite TV Series:The Sopranos
Favorite WW2 Movie's: Kelly's Heroes, Battle of Britain, Band of Bro

mike407

  • Pilot Officer
  • *
  • Karma: 0
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 7
Re: THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
« Reply #13 on: January 18, 2021, 03:22:04 PM »

You'd still need proof of the offense... and on the subject of the weight issue, I personally wouldn't let anyone touch my gear to weigh it unless they had a warrant. You do not have to give consent to anyone other than a police officer and only IF they think a crime has been committed.



Steve
Who needs to proof the offence?
Nope police have been empowered to investigate on behave of the CAA.
So they could be reacting to a direct CAA request, their own observation or a compliant call from j public.

There for I think not assisting a police investigation is an charageble offence.
Having a less than gentlemanly response to the police can get you arrest for public order offence.

The what happens to you kit when you have been arrested sitting in police car.

Forensics come and weighs model and because it has grass and dirt on it it now weighs over 250g.
Or no problem officer I’ll get my scales - wiping dirt/ grass from model before weighing it. Chances are you would have already taken have  the battery out, so would put in battery that allows flights in the category you were flying it.

If flying and asked to land, - Yes officer land and complete post flight checks to make UAV safe as per your Article 16 club code or manufactures hand book, before engaging with them.





Under Art 16 it has to be reported. That is the legal responsibility of any authorised UAV flyer.
CAA will properly just log it and use for states until it becomes prevalent and then issue warnings or in worst case tighten the rules next year.

There is a club that has two trees left of of pilots area that could be used as a gap for FPV flying so it’s not LOS all the time. This has now stopped and they have gone for hops on the ground.



There is also the issue with the UTUBE crowd.
Welcome to my first flight of 2021, at my favourite site(in the uk) to day I’m going to
A. Do a long distance test of UAV model.
B. Fly FPV around some trees, buildings etc.
C. Do a crash test and fly their drone , into wall, tree etc.
D. I know that we are in lock down but I though I would nip out for a flight.
(might argue then it’s a commercial fly so allowed).

So without a statement in the film or notes below stating , CAA permission for this flight, or yes had observer meet “Fred” as a responsible UAV pilot have you just witness an notifiable occurrence?

Painless36p did intro of his observer in one of his recent videos.

Most of the UAV Utubers (uk based) do not seem to have operator labels ( even hashed out)
I’ve seen one with a hashed out operator ID and they said words to the effect, before I show you my drone footage I’m register and insured.

LINE OF SITE

The reporting Loss of line of site, is going to be issue.

A. How far can you fly an Eachine Trashcan away before you or your observer loose sight of it? - there is a difference between being above and below the hedge line.

B. Flying circuits with your TWIG in the garden around the water butts, or below the height of the raised beds. Fun, keeps one going through lockdown but does it comply with the sprint of CAP 722 A1 / Art 16 requirements.

( just thought need to look at sterile area rules as garden is surrounded by 6ft fences and the only uninvited guest is the neighbours cat)

Another extreme example there is a field that has 6 very tall tress ( 100ft high, 50 foot wide 150ft long) So if you take off along the center line of field and fly past them climbing then fly above and behind them you have LOS all the way.

But in summer fly in front of them or in the shadow of the long side you potentially lose LOS of the UAV.

Just thought it will be the same flying along the field hedge lines, they will be in shadow. Need a strobe on quad when flying there.


Separation 30m Art 16 / 50m Open A3.

Sounds very simple. Except the field you use to take off and land has a (5ft) hedge all the way round way round and you are 50m from the hedge.  Easy to maintain distance in the field you are standing in, but you cannot see the ground in the next field , so who is in there?


Art 16 - model aircraft v Open A1/A3

( example with some holes - but good enough to hi light   an issue, that I didn’t understand)

Have DJI drone and take off and land manually You can use Art 16 to fly, but if you use auto land and take off then need to fly  Open A1/A3.

So Alt hold or position hold have to be flown under Open A1/A3 .

It seems that you could use automation in the case of a fail safe occurring.

I know it says it in Art 16 that models control surfaces must only be controlled by direct inputs from the pilot ( stabilisation allowed) but didn’t click for position hold, height hold as the Flight controller should not be giving the UAV commands directly.

Had  to ask question because I was thinking of building a fixed wing VTOL UAV and thinking about transitions form vertical to horizontal flight.


The problem with any regulations, they may look ok until you start peeling the layers and look at the detail/ consequences.

Another stupid question, when do you declare this is an Art 16 flight and when is it an Open A1/A3 flight. Take off manually ( > 250) art 16, and have auto landing capability and switch it on and now it’s Open A3 flight. Separation during whole flight?


OK some may be over the top examples but In some cases it’s not hard to infringe the rules when doing normal “safe” flying and under our permissions to fly they are legally reportable. We have all ticked the box to say we will agree to the terms of Art 16.

No sure of the sanctions if someone reports you for not reporting a reportable occurrence.

Any volunteers for club safety officers??





Logged

BigT

  • Nothing works !!
  • Air Commodore
  • *
  • Karma: 23
  • Offline Offline
  • Posts: 2894
  • I'm not deaf just thinking
Re: THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?
« Reply #14 on: January 18, 2021, 04:22:00 PM »

Under Art16 a “toy UAS” is defined as “suitable for a 4 to 5 year old” so that would be ok to hook around in the back garden.

Flight over 400 ft AGL up to 1000ft AGL <7.5 kg is not allowed without permission in controlled airspace which obviously includes FRZ, despite what is said in the Article16. I have had extensive communication with the NATS and London Luton ATC regarding this as one of my club sites is in an active ground to 3800ft CTR. They are insistent that we will need to apply for permission to operate over 400ft so they could issue a permanent NOTAM. I do understand that as there is a local that keeps his full size heli in his garden about 1 mile away. Another club has had a permanent NO as it’s on an active airfield. A 3rd club  is also in a CTR but that one is from 2500ft to 3800ft so ATC don’t want to know.

With regard to flight automation it’s not if it’s used it’s if it’s installed. Personally I think RTH failsafe is a great idea but the CAA wanted to make pre programmed autonomous flight illegal and wouldn’t budge.
« Last Edit: January 18, 2021, 04:24:28 PM by BigT »
Logged
Favorite TV Series:The Sopranos
Favorite WW2 Movie's: Kelly's Heroes, Battle of Britain, Band of Bro
Pages: [1] 2
 


* Recent Topics
DJI HD V1 FPV by FPVSteve
[Today at 12:08:50 AM]


Alive and Kicking by Coyote
[February 22, 2021, 10:50:27 AM]


Eagltree problem by micarus
[January 24, 2021, 04:20:13 PM]


E.T.s GEPRC MK4....Custom Build Long Range. by English Turbines
[January 22, 2021, 05:22:41 PM]


New Mini Talon coming? by Coyote
[January 21, 2021, 08:04:51 PM]


Video Receiver DJi by Coyote
[January 21, 2021, 08:01:16 PM]


AAIB Report on UK Police Accident by BigT
[January 21, 2021, 10:58:41 AM]


THE NEW UAS REGULATIONS – WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE? by mike407
[January 19, 2021, 10:31:42 PM]


Sharing My Music and Sound Effects - Over 2000 Tracks by Eric Matyas
[January 19, 2021, 01:21:41 PM]


VIFLY ShortSaver V2 - Efuse Smoke Stopper with Binding Switch by johnq816
[January 16, 2021, 04:19:08 AM]

* Keywords
fpvhub  fpv hub
first person view video piloting

rc r/c r.c. model aircraft flight pilot fpv piloting wings fly flying flight fuse fuselage aileron tail pan tilt tx rx vtx rtx receiver transmitter video radio control controlled headtracker fpvuk bfpvmfa fpv uk first person view video piloting fpv servo servos easystar easy star multiplex antenna VR1400 fatshark video goggles 2.4 5.8 1.2 900 ghz mhz uhf panel antenna circular fpv polarised tracker dbi 10mw 100mw 500mw camera osd fpvuk bfpvmfa fpv first person view video piloting downlink ezantenna tracker gps EzOSD current sensor tiny telemetry autopilot ccd gopro kx131 kx171 FY21 FY21A FY21AP II IMU oracle diversity processor video switcher fpvuk bfpvmfa fpv uk first person view video piloting insurance simulator delta wing glider funjet quadcropter helis heli helicopter electric nitro scratchbuild scratch build batteries battery 2s 3s 4s lipo lipos fpvuk first person view video piloting Antenna fpvhub  fpv first person view video piloting rc r/c r.c. model aircraft flight pilot fpv Airframe Artifical Horizon Auto pilot Av AWG AWU Bec Brownout Buddy box C rating CG Circular Polarized Data logger Dbi Dbm Dipole Diversity DVR Easycap EPO EPP Failsafe FM Freshnel zone Frequency Gain Ghz Goggles GPS Ground Station Gyro Head Tracker HD Hz Inverted Vee Jst LC Filter Lipo LUX Mah Mhz Omni OSD Pan Patch Platform Polarization Rssi RTH Servo Spotter Telemetry Tilt Tracker Transmitter TVL Ubec UHF Video Splitter Vrx Vtx Watts Yagi  fpv uk first person view video piloting rc r/c r.c. model aircraft flight pilot fpv

http://www.fpvhub.com/forum/index.php?action=sitemap;xml http://www.fpvhub.com/forum/index.php?action=sitemap http://www.fpvhub.com/forum/index.php?action=sitemap;start=0 http://www.fpvhub.com/forum/index.php?action=sitemap;start=100 http://www.fpvhub.com/forum/index.php?action=sitemap;start=200 http://www.fpvhub.com/forum/index.php?action=sitemap;start=300 http://www.fpvhub.com/forum/index.php?action=sitemap;start=400 http://www.fpvhub.com/forum/index.php?action=sitemap;start=500 http://www.fpvhub.com/forum/index.php?action=sitemap;start=600 http://www.fpvhub.com/forum/index.php?action=sitemap;start=700 http://www.fpvhub.com/forum/index.php?action=sitemap;start=800 http://www.fpvhub.com/forum/index.php?action=sitemap;start=900 http://www.fpvhub.com/forum/index.php?action=sitemap;start=1000 http://www.fpvhub.com/forum/index.php?action=sitemap;start=1100 http://www.fpvhub.com/forum/index.php?action=sitemap;start=1200
* Disclaimer
The content, views and opinions expressed within this forum are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views, official policy or position of FpvHub. However, we reserve the right to remove or edit any content considered inappropriate.